Nicotine / Cotinine 200
Cotinine is the first-stage metabolite of nicotine, a toxic alkaloid that produces stimulation of the autonomic ganglia and central nervous system when in humans. Nicotine is a drug to which virtually every member of a tobacco-smoking society is exposed whether through direct contact or second-hand inhalation. In addition to tobacco, nicotine is also commercially available as the active ingredient in smoking replacement therapies such as nicotine gum, transdermal patches and nasal sprays. In a 24-hour urine, approximately 5% of a nicotine dose is excreted as unchanged drug with 10% as Cotinine and 35% as hydroxycotinine; the concentrations of other metabolites are believed to account for less than 5%. While Cotinine is thought to be an inactive metabolite, it’s elimination profile is more stable than that of nicotine which is largely urine pH dependent. As a result, Cotinine is considered a good biological marker for determining nicotine use. The plasma half-life of nicotine is approximately 60 minutes following inhalation or parenteral administration. Nicotine and Cotinine are rapidly eliminated by the kidney; the window of detection for Cotinine in urine at a cutoff level of 200 ng/mL is expected to be up to 2-3 days after nicotine use.